Kenpo Karate Setting History Right 1956-1959by
(second revision 8/8/99)
(third revision 9/20/2018
After graduating from BYU with a degree in Sociology in June 1956, (not in both sociology and psychology as some claim) Ed Parker moved to Pasadena, California. Three months before Ed had tested for a position with the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department, and got a job with their Probation Department. Ed wanted to work with troubled youth, but because of his size and martial arts skills he was assigned to supervise the most hardened parolees. Ed saw no future in this and asked Roy Woodward for advice. Roy Woodward had encouraged Ed to come to Los Angeles where he had a body building gym. (Roy would sell this to American Health Studios and become their regional manager) Roy had paid Ed's expenses so he could go to Los Angeles to take the Civil Service examination for the Sheriff's Department.
Ed Parker published Inside Elvis Rampart House 1978 which was the year after Elvis died. On page 25 he wrote:American Health did not allow outside trainers, so Roy introduced Ed to Bert Goodrich who had a gym on Fair Oaks Street in Pasadena as well as his popular gym on Hollywood Blvd. where Steve Reeves and many of the body builders trained. Bert Goodrich and Roy Woodward took Ed to meet Terry Robinson who was athletic director at the Beverly Wilshire Health Club. Terry, who was billed as "The Deadliest Marine" who taught self-defense as "Kill or Be Killed" was so impressed with Ed that he set him up teaching private lessons to the Hollywood elite."Graduation was decision time ... should I further my education or seek employment? Roy Woodward was now the manager of a health studio in Southern California. He extended an offer, which I accepted: however, through a chain of circumstances, I suddenly found myself unemployed."It is quite different from what Ed would later write about having planned with Chow on opening Kenpo school on the mainland after he graduated from BYU. And becoming unemployed (leaving the Probation Department) was what Ed always told my brothers and me.
Ed has his meeting with Terry Robinson wrong where he wrote, "Roy called one day while I was renovating my new studio. He invited me to American Health's Hollywood Gym. He wanted me to meet Terry Robinson a World War II "kill or be killer" combat instructor...'if I had the time.' It was an afternoon well spent and concluded with Terry inviting me to the Beverly Wilshire Health Club where he was the physical director." (Inside Elvis (1979) Rampart House, Ltd. Page 26.
Ed did not open his Pasadena Studio until February 18, 1957, and had been teaching at the Bert Goodrich Bar Bell Gym for about a month when Bert and Roy introduced Ed to Terry Robinson. It's a minor detail, but when taken as a whole, Ed was ignoring how he got started teaching Kenpo for a more determined from the beginning approach.
The Beverly Wilshire Health Club was not a health studio like American Health, but rather more like a spa, social club and health club combined. Its members included most of Hollywood's movers and shakers. Ed did not teach classes as many believe, but rather simi-private lessons to small groups of two or three friends, and many of these had Ed come to their homes to teach private lessons.
Ed made enough money teaching private lessons that he could quit his job with the Probation Department, and open a full-time school. In February, 1957 Ed borrowed $300 from a Mormon friend, rented the building at 1840 E. Walnut Street in Pasadena for $65 a month, and called it the "Kenpo Karate Self Defense Studio".
I began Judo in June 1955, while stationed at the Presidio in San Francisco, and 5 weeks TDY (July-August) in Tokyo and was in Japan for three days each month after that until being transferred to Japan; then transferred from MI to ASA Comm Recon, in Oujongbu Korea for sixteen months where I trained in Moo Duk Quan and earned Il Dan in September 1957. I was in Tokyo for three days each month and earned Judo Sankyu in August 1957. After release from active duty, I began training with Ed Parker on October 15, 1957. More than 25 Moo Duk Quan “goot shun” were the same as Kenpo Karate Techniques, and Ed had me Uki (training partner = punching bag) for his Hollywood private students starting on October 17, 1967. I was Uki for Jose Ferrer and Bronisław Kaper the first day and they and Nick Hilton became my Hollywood mentors. Ed promoted me to Yonkyu on February 18, 1958, at the One-Year anniversary of the opening his Walnut Street Studio.Ed's original mat was made of sawdust covered with canvas, and this was what his students worked out on until he got tatami mats from Japan a few weeks later.
NOTE: Many in American Kenpo believe Ed Parker held some secret knowledge which he only imparted to a select few. In a way, that was true. But it had nothing to do with Kenpo. How to make a sawdust mat was a "secret" Ed only showed to his inner circle. Everyone in Ed Parker's Inner Kenpo Karate Circle knew how the mat is made, the type of canvas used and the details of its construction. This was the type of mat the Tracy brothers used in their first studio in San Francisco, and anyone who does not know how it was made was never in Ed's Inner Circle.Ed was concerned about how Professor Chow would take his opening a school and wrote Professor Chow in 1957, requesting his permission to open the studio in Pasadena. This was such an important request that Professor Chow showed the letter to Adriano Emperado, and it was Emperado who finally convinced Chow to allow the studio to be opened. But Chow did not give his permission until later 1957.
Sonny Emperado mentioned this letter in his tribute to Ed Parker, and Professor Chow showed me the letter in 1961. Despite the claims that Ed and Professor Chow had planned on opening Kenpo schools on the mainland, the letter stated that after Ed went to California he began teaching at a health club (a slight exaggeration), and got such enthusiastic response that he wanted to open a school on his own. (Ed began teaching at Bert Goodrich's Gym in Aug, 1956, and opened his own studio in February 1957, but did not write Chow until May, 1957 and Chow gave his permission in December 1957.)
This delay between when Ed opened his school and when he wrote Professor Chow may be one of the reasons Ed called his school Kenpo Karate, instead of Go-shinjutsu, which is the name Professor Chow was using at the time. The first time Ed mentioned mention Go-shinjutsu was in his 1960 book, Kenpo Karate, the Law of the Fist and Empty Hand (page 11) as being the system created by Daruma (c. 525 A.D.).
Paul Pung was the only other Kenpo instructor who had run a full-time Kenpo school, and Paul's school like Ed's Pasadena studio, made very little money. Ed only made a marginal living from the school, and his money came from teaching private lessons to Hollywood celebrities whom he met at the Beverly Wilshire Health Club, and through writer, Joe Hyams, and music composer Bronislaw Kaper.
Ed had about twenty regular students training at the studio when I began training with him in October 1957. However, Ed had at least another twenty private students whom he taught at their homes. Ed's top students were his two brown belts, Jimmy Ibrao and Benny Otake. Shortly after I started, Jimmy Ibrao was promoted to Shodan. Ed was proud that Jimmy (as we called him) had only taken nine months to get his black belt.
About two weeks after my brother Jim started in June, 1958 Ed started a day class with just my brother and me, so it was like having semi private lessons. We were going to Pasadena City College which was only a few blocks away, and Jim quickly progressed in the evening from beginner to intermediate and then advanced class where I was a Yonkyu. Ed was organizing what he would teach, and had all the Kenpo techniques written on 3X5 index cards. After each class Ed would go over the techniques he wanted to teach in the evening classes, and organize them for the article he wrote each month for Ironman Magazine. He wanted to make sure that the techniques were not too difficult to follow and learn for anyone reading his article. The articles were so successful that Ironman gave Ed a book deal, and we began organizing the techniques for what would become, Kenpo Karate the Law of the Fist and Empty Hand.
NOTE by Roarke Tracy: My father began training in October, 1957, Jim in June 1958 after high school in Red Bluff and my Uncle Al was in the Air Force. About two weeks after my father was promoted in 1958, Uncle Al had a month of leave time and went to Pasadena where he began training for two weeks. He came back on another fifteen day leave in mid 1958, before being discharged from the Air Force, in September 1958 when he began training each week.
I trained with Ed Parker until the March 1959 and having access to Ed Parker's Kenpo techniques he kept on 3x5 index cards in his desk my brothers and I copied them by hand because there were no copy machines back then. As my brothers and I went through the cards to pick out the techniques he would teach the advanced class each night it became obvious that Ed had taught me everything he had on the cards; which was about everything he knew. Ed Promoted me to Sankyu, but I never wore the belt, just as I never put the two Yonkyu tips on my belt because I didn't want anyone thinking Al or Jim or I had any different rank. Nick Hilton offered me a good position in Hawaii, and told Ed I wanted to go to Hawaii to train with Professor Chow. Ed liked the idea, because he knew from the Island boys who had come over, that Professor Chow was not happy with him. Ed wanted to make amends, and he wanted Professor Chow to promote him to a higher rank. But Ed also wanted to add forms to his system. All of the Japanese karate demonstrations were getting great response from their forms, but Ed didn't have any. I suggested that we go to San Francisco where I knew several Kung Fu men, and Ed could see what Chinese forms were like.
In early February, 1959, Ed Parker, and my brother Al Tracy and I went to San Francisco and I introduced Ed to Al Novak who was a friend studying Kung Fu in San Francisco with Professor T.Y. Wong, and it was through Professor Wong that Ed met Jimmy Lee. Ed was impressed with the forms, but considered them to be closer to the Tai Chi I showed him than Japanese Katas.
Ed was claiming 3rd degree black belt at the time, and no one questioned this. I though he wanted to be promoted to 5th degree, because that was the rank of some of the Japanese karate instructors at the time.
I arrived in Hawaii in March and after settling in with a friend, and setting up for what Nick wanted me to do, I went to pay my respects to Professor Chow. Chow, however was not at all receptive when I first met him. Then I went with Tom Loura to pay my respects to Thomas Young; and it was Young who introduced me to Fusae Oshita. Oshita did not teach, and I didn't even think of asking her. But after Tom and I took her out to dinner, she asked to see what I had learned. I was a beginner, and didn't want to show how little I knew to a master, so I did the Yang Tai Chi form. She was impressed. She had wanted to learn Tai Chi for years, but none of the Chinese knew the form, or if they did, they said they didn't. She asked me to teach her the form, and I told her I could only show her the moves, I could never teach it because I wasn't good enough. She agreed to teach me Kenpo in exchange for showing her the Tai Chi moves. Oshita is the only one I ever showed the 9 Yang style forms. Everyone else referred to her as Sensai Oshita. She insisted I use her American name.
As soon as Professor Chow learned that Oshita had taken me on as a student, he accepted me as a student also. A few months later (September) Ed arrived in Hawaii. This was the first time he had gone to Hawaii since leaving for BYU in 1954.
Ed and I met the day before his meeting with Professor Chow, and I told Ed that Chow was not happy with his success. However, I brokered an agreement with Ed and Chow that Ed would open another school and split the profits with Chow. But Professor Chow first wanted to see results from the new school, and Ed returned to the mainland without the promotion.
Ed had turned the Pasadena studio over to Al and Jim Tracy in August 1959, to finish the photographs for his book so he could go to Hawaii, and Al and Jim raised the first months gross receipts from its usual $600 to over $1,000. When Ed returned from Hawaii in late September 1959, he found the school doing so well that he saw no need to go there to teach, and that gave him time to go over the final draft for his book. Over the next few weeks, Ed taught private lessons to the Beverly Hills students, and train Al and Jim in his back yard each day when they brought the studio receipts to him. By the end of the year, December, which was always the worst month for money in the school, Al and Jim brought in $2000.
The business success my brothers had was the beginning of a change in Kenpo, which began with changing the belt rank system. When we began training with Ed Parker in 1957, there were 5 Kyu grades (white belt was ungraded) but 5th Kyu and 4th Kyu were white belts. As Ed would say, "When you begin you are a white belt, as you learn you belt gets dirtier so when you are dirty, you are a brown belt; then when you are really dirty, you are a black belt." Only Gokyu (5th Kyu) and higher could wear the Club Patch. We suggested that Ed add tips to the white belts to show their rank. Ed wasn't concerned about showing rank, as he did not understand how a visual belt rank would impact student retention. Ed's objection to the tips was how to put them on the belts. We had the solution, iron-on patches that we would cut in strips. These were being sold in black and brown to patch denim work pants, and we told Ed we would iron the tips on all the belts for him. That overcame his objections, but what sold Ed on the idea was the immediate advantage of being able to sell Club Patches to all his students at $5 each. The patches only cost Ed 75 cents, and he sold out in less than a week. This made Gokyu (5th Kyu) one brown tip, and Yonkyu (4th Kyu) two brown tips. Sankyu was the first brown belt and Ed added a brown tip to Nikyu (2nd brown) and two brown tips to Ikkyu (third brown.) Al Tracy would use this belt tip ranking to make Ed Parker's studio the most successful school in the country in 1959.
Al Tracy knew that 90% of beginning students dropped out after one month - even though they paid for three months in advance. He knew that most of the dropouts were discouraged with their progress, so he began calling all the students who had dropped out over the past three months and told them their class payments had been extended so they could complete the rest of their three months without any additional charge. As they came in, he and Jim would take a few minutes to evaluate what they had learned, and when they went to the beginning class, Jim would lead the class and Al would go around and help the students with any problem they were having. The students progressed much faster than just going to class and trying to pick up what the other students were doing. I had learned this method from Carolyn Mitchell, who was Arthur Murray's top Dance Instructor, and Conrad Hilton's personal dance teacher. We became close friends the week after I began as Uki for Ed in 1957, and ma femme and I were with her when she met Mickey Rooney, whom she married a year later.
My brothers thought the techniques that Ed had in his soon-to-be published Kenpo Karate the Law of the Fist and Empty Hand and worked the students hard towards learning all 62 techniques. Al would tell each student how close he was getting to his one brown tip, and it enthused them to where many of them brought in friends to sign up. For each friend who signed up, the student got a month of free lessons.
When Ed returned from Hawaii, Al told Ed he wanted to add two more Kyu (brown tips) to white belt as the Japanese system had. Ed agreed, but wanted to think about it.
Ed had completed, Kenpo Karate the Law of the Fist and Empty Hand and was already planning a second book. But that book required help from Chinese scholars. Ed waited until after his son was born in mid November, and the following week he took several of his students with him to San Francisco. The day before he left, he changed the belt system to add, (7th - 1 brown tips) Shichikyu and (6th - 2 brown tips) Rokkyu.
Ed received an advance from Ironman for Kenpo Karate and brought his parents to Pasadena to visit. I returned to Los Angeles on the same flight, and my brothers and I took Ed's family to the bull fights in Tijuana. I didn't have a chance to go to Ed's studio at that time because it was Christmas, and I left for Salt Lake City the following week.Rich Montgomery, Ed Parker
T.Y. Wong, James Ibrao
©1999, 2006, 2015, 2018 by W. Tracy. All rights reserved. No portion may be reproduced without permission.